A review of cellulosic biofuel commercial-scale projects in the United States

In contrast to a few years ago, when cellulosic ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis was the only widely recognized technology for commercially producing cellulosic biofuels, a diversity of approaches are currently under commercial development. While no commercial-scale (=20 million gallons per year) cellulosic biofuel facilities are operating at present, at least ten biorefinery projects employing six different pathways are expected to begin operations by 2014. This review provides an overview of the six pathway technologies, comprehensive descriptions of each of the ten biorefinery projects, and a discussion of the current direction of cellulosic biofuel commercialization efforts and its implications for the revised Renewable Fuel Standard.

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4. Conversion
5. Biofuels & Co-Products
6. Sustainability

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